Russian president demanded that exports of Russian gas to "unfriendly" countries be settled in rubles. The demand has raised concerns in Germany about possible supply disruptions and the impact on industry and households if utilities do not pay in robles. Europe gets about 40% of its gas from Russia. Last year, Europe imported about 155 billion cubic meters. Germany, Europe's largest economy, depends heavily on Russian gas.
The chief executive of Germany's E.ON said the German economy would face "significant damage, which should be avoided if possible" without Russian supplies. He also said it would take Germany three years to wean itself off Russian gas.
In the event of a supply disruption, Germany's gas network regulator would prioritize home heating over industrial use, so energy-hungry manufacturers such as steelmakers would be the first to suffer, he said.
The volatile international situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the 316L Stainless Steel.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal parts
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal parts can be achieved using a variety of different process technologies, which use powder, wire or sheet as raw materials. The additive manufacturing process using metal powder as raw material is Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Binder Jet Printing (BJP). These are called powder bed processes. SLM and EBM technologies use laser beams and electron beams to melt powder, respectively. The microstructure and mechanical properties of different alloy parts manufactured using these two technologies are the most widely reported in the research. On the contrary, there is relatively little exploration of the BJP process. The structure-performance correlation of metal parts produced by this process has not yet received widespread attention.
The main advantage of the BJP process is that it can (compared to other powder bed processes) produce parts at a relatively low cost and at a faster speed. The important thing is that it is applicable to any kind of alloy, and additive manufacturing using SLM/EBM technology can only be performed on a few alloys. The porosity level in BJP alloys is often very high, which may have a profound impact on its performance. A researcher studied the microstructure, porosity and its effect on tensile and high cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel with different manufacturing processes.
In general, BJP and CM 316L stainless steels have strong work hardening ability, which gives them great ductility. SLM alloy has a high yield strength, but dislocations cross slip at the beginning of plastic deformation, which shortens the work hardening process and affects ductility. The results of this research can guide the design of additive manufacturing alloys: the higher porosity of BJP does not adversely affect the high-cycle fatigue performance, but it reduces the yield strength. Therefore, reducing the porosity can basically increase the yield strength of BJP parts, making it the same as that of CM alloy. For SLM specimens, it is obvious that insufficient fusion pores should be reduced to a minimum (if not completely eliminated) to reduce overall porosity and increase fatigue strength.
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At a regular press conference held by the Ministry of Commerce on March 31, a media question was raised: The COVID-19 outbreak has led to the shutdown of production in many parts of China. What impact will it have on China's foreign trade enterprises as a whole and micro, small and medium-sized foreign trade enterprises?
In this regard, the Spokesperson of the Ministry of Commerce said that the Ministry is closely following the impact of the epidemic on foreign trade enterprises, especially small, medium and micro foreign trade enterprises. As far as we can see, some foreign trade enterprises are affected by the epidemic and are faced with periodic problems in production and operation, logistics and transportation. At the same time, problems such as rising raw material costs, slow cross-border shipping and supply chain bottlenecks have yet to be fundamentally alleviated, and foreign trade enterprises, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in particular, still face considerable operating pressure. The price of 316L Stainless Steel operated by foreign trade enterprises will also fluctuate with the changes of the epidemic. Contact us for the latest quotation on 316L Stainless Steel.
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