New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the graphene vs graphite.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials graphene vs graphite have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the graphene vs graphite raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The graphene vs graphite materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The graphene vs graphite industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
The phase transition of titanium alloy was observed at atomic scale about the graphene vs graphite new material
Titanium is an important structural metal. Titanium alloy is widely used in aerospace and biomedical fields because of its light weight, high specific strength, good corrosion resistance and high heat resistance.
Recently, Professor Yu Zhang Led her team in the Group of Electron Microscopy Center at Zhejiang University in Collaboration with Professor Ma Wei Zhang from Xi \'an Jiaotong University and Long Qingchen from Pennsylvania State University to explore how high-temperature titanium evolves in microstructure. The mechanism of α-β phase transformation in Ti-Mo alloy has been studied by in situ multi-scale electron microscopy combined with synchrotron radiation and computational simulation. They found a significant difference between this transition process and that described by classical nucleation theory. Their findings are published in the 26th issue of Nature Materials. Phases in alloys are usually homogeneous components with the same aggregation state, crystal structure and properties. Different phases have different characteristics due to their structure and composition. In the design of materials, we can make full use of their complementary advantages to optimize the overall performance of materials.
The classical nucleation mechanism begins with the nucleation of a new phase whose crystal structure and composition are identical to the final equilibrium product. However, this simple diagram does not explain the phase transition paths in many alloy systems. Typically, one or more intermediate states precede the product stage, and these states differ significantly from the product stage in terms of composition, crystal structure, and chemical sequence. The intermediate state is metastable, and as it evolves, its thermodynamic properties change, including its interface energy with the surrounding environment. Non-classical nucleation has recently been reported in the formation of inorganic nanoparticles in solution, the crystallization of proteins, the nucleation of diamond crystals, and the crystallization of amorphous tungsten carbide. However, the atomic details of complex reactions in metallurgical systems remain unclear. Yu said. "Our study can serve as a prime example of both field and atomic-scale experiments combined with computer simulations. Therefore, it opens the door to studying solid-state phase transitions in other alloys."
New materials including the graphene vs graphite market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials graphene vs graphite on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the graphene vs graphite material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of graphene vs graphite science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
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