New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the graphene.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials graphene have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
A new two-step mechanism of two - dimensional material formation is revealed
Now, using a new monitoring and analysis method, researchers led by Toshiaki Kato of Tohoku University in Japan have revealed key mechanisms in the development of 2D monolayer transition metal dihalides (TMD). They published their methods and findings in the Nov. 15 issue of Scientific Reports.
"TMD is one of the most famous layered materials," said Toshiaki Kato, author of the paper and associate professor in the department of Electrical engineering at Tohoku University in Japan, noting that the large monolayer of the material can be achieved by adding salt. "The quality of TMD must be improved to enable future flexible and transparent electronic devices such as sensors, solar cells and luminescence." TMD is developed by vaporizing metal oxide powder and adding salt. Conventional methods keep the heat high, forcing the molecules of metal oxide - salt vapor to rearrange themselves directly into crystals. This rearrangement of the molecules is called nucleation, and it grows into monomolecular TMD. Lowering the melting and boiling points of metal oxides, however, enhances this transition by allowing the evaporating molecules to oversaturate in the environment and produce a liquid phase before arranging into a solid.
"Over-saturated vapor phase metal oxides promote the creation of liquid phase precursors, called precursor puddles, and promote the growth of traditional vapor-solid vapor-liquid-solid growth," Kato said, pointing out that the growth rate of vapor-liquid-solid TMD was at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of vapor-solid TMD. "Despite this progress, the critical dynamics of the nucleation stage of salt-assisted growth have not been elucidated; Achieving this goal is critical for both basic and industrial applications." To better understand the nucleation process of gas-liquid-solid TMD, we built an imaging monitoring system to study how vapor chemicals are deposited as solids during TMD synthesis.
The new two-step mechanism of 2d material formation shows the advantages of new material graphene
"In this study, we achieved direct visualization of the phase transition from liquid precursor to solid TMD by monitoring chemical vapor deposition and automated image analysis," Kato said. "In this way, we have discovered a new nucleation mechanism." In gas-solid two-phase growth, the vapor molecules rearrange themselves directly in the solid. The researchers found that in the gas-liquid-solid growth process, the molecule undergoes a two-step nucleation process: the gas phase becomes a droplet and the droplets from stable but variable clusters. As the temperature changes, the molecular clusters form crystalline solids.
"This detailed understanding of TMD nuclear dynamics helps achieve perfect structural control of TMD, which will help in future industrial applications," Kato said. "The methods we developed to monitor chemical vapor deposition and automatic image analysis can also be applied to other nanomaterials to gain a deeper understanding of their nucleation and growth mechanisms." The researchers next plan to use the newly discovered nucleation mechanism to synthesize ultra-high quality TMD.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the graphene raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The graphene materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The graphene industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
New materials including the graphene market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials graphene on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the graphene material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of graphene science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
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